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Brythonic was the spoken language during this time. Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy 's Geographia there were around 20 tribes in the area.

Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate. Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans.

The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius , subsequently conquering much of Britain , and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province.

Later, an uprising led by Boudica , Queen of the Iceni , ended with Boudica's suicide following her defeat at the Battle of Watling Street.

There is debate about when Christianity was first introduced; it was no later than the 4th century, probably much earlier.

According to Bede , missionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the chieftain Lucius of Britain in AD, to settle differences as to Eastern and Western ceremonials, which were disturbing the church.

There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimathea , while others claim through Lucius of Britain.

This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology. Local "congregations" were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church.

Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, Angles , Jutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province and began to settle, initially in the eastern part of the country.

Contemporary texts describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age. The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement.

Roman-dominated Christianity had, in general, disappeared from the conquered territories, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from onwards.

During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including Northumbria , Mercia , Wessex , East Anglia , Essex , Kent and Sussex.

Over the following centuries, this process of political consolidation continued. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia.

Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw.

A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in and again by his son Cnut in , turning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway.

However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of England in , accomplished by an army led by Duke William of Normandy.

Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage.

The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century [52] and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope.

During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years' War.

During the Tudor period , the Renaissance reached England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity.

Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England.

In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry's daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I.

The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.

Competing with Spain , the first English colony in the Americas was founded in by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke. The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship.

During the Elizabethan period , England was at war with Spain. An armada sailed from Spain in as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy.

The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harrying attacks by an English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham.

This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in and , but both were driven back by storms. The political structure of the island changed in , when the King of Scots , James VI , a kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I , thereby creating a personal union.

It has not only been ranked with Shakespeare 's works as the greatest masterpiece of literature in the English language but also was the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant Christians for four hundred years until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century.

Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I , known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively.

This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms , involving Scotland and Ireland.

The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth. Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in ; a period of personal rule followed.

After the Glorious Revolution of , it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power.

This was established with the Bill of Rights in Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament.

In the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards [70] with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren.

In Parliament two factions had emerged — the Tories and Whigs. Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons.

After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed, [71] the two countries joined in political union , to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire.

Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution , a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.

During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England's countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Birmingham and Manchester , dubbed "Workshop of the World" and "Warehouse City" respectively.

During the Napoleonic Wars , Napoleon planned to invade from the south-east. However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington.

The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people , shared with the Scots and Welsh.

London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era , and trade within the British Empire — as well as the standing of the British military and navy — was prestigious.

Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. Following the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisation , and there was a speeding up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary means of transport and Frank Whittle 's development of the jet engine led to wider air travel.

The UK's NHS provided publicly funded health care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation.

Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England in the midth century. Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles , but also from the Commonwealth , particularly the Indian subcontinent.

Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system. Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments.

In the United Kingdom general election, , the Conservative Party won seats the Speaker of the House not being counted as a Conservative , more than any other party, though not enough to achieve an overall majority.

As the United Kingdom is a member of the European Union, there are elections held regionally in England to decide who is sent as Members of the European Parliament.

Since devolution , in which other countries of the United Kingdom — Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England.

Originally it was planned that various regions of England would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a referendum, this has not been carried out.

One major issue is the West Lothian question , in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.

The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law [] legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries [] and the United States except Louisiana.

Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union , as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.

The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent — stare decisis — to the facts before them.

It was created in after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords.

The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government.

The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England: These were created in as Government Offices , used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in the regional government offices were abolished.

After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight.

London accepted in However, when the proposal was rejected by the northern England devolution referendums, in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.

Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils.

Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council.

They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities.

Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs , plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.

Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.

It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: England is closer to the European continent than any other part of mainland Britain. Most of England's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country.

The northern uplands include the Pennines , a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills , straddling the border between England and Scotland.

The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.

The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region's rivers. They contain two national parks , the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District.

In the West Country , Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks.

The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.

England has a temperate maritime climate: The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month.

Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean , its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.

The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England [] and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.

While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham , Sheffield , Manchester, Liverpool , Leeds , Newcastle , Bradford , Nottingham , population size is not a prerequisite for city status.

England is a leader in the chemical [] and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry.

Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since it has been a state-owned institution.

The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.

England is highly industrialised, but since the s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.

The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley , crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.

It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter — the world's largest single defence project — for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system.

It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft. Rolls-Royce PLC is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer.

Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.

With a workforce of over 12, people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.

The company builds the buses — the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built — for most of the European Space Agency 's spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites.

The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellites , is also part of Astrium. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins , the first secretary of the Royal Society , in As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel , best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.

With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton business partner of James Watt is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.

Inventions and discoveries of the English include: Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics , and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.

Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon , tarmac , the rubber band , the mousetrap , "cat's eye" road marker , joint development of the light bulb , steam locomotives , the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering.

The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. There are many motorways in England , and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle [] much of this section is motorway and onward to the Scottish border.

The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. There is a rapid transit network in two English cities: Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge.

These lines are mostly standard gauge single , double or quadruple track though there are also a few narrow gauge lines.

There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel , which was completed in England has extensive domestic and international aviation links.

The largest airport is Heathrow , which is the world's busiest airport measured by number of international passengers.

The Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary, one of the United Kingdom's three major ports.

The National Health Service NHS is the publicly funded healthcare system in England responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country.

It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report , prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge. The average life expectancy of people in England is The English people are a British people.

In , when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million. Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the s: England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people , recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.

During the English Renaissance , many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. Thanks in large part to the British Empire , the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca.

English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity , and includes language schooling , tourism spending, and publishing.

There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, [] but English is the only language used for official business.

Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents , and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.

As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages , Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived, [] [] and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts and , many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border.

Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century, [] and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.

State schools teach students a second language , usually French, German or Spanish. However, following the census data released by the Office for National Statistics , figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.

In the census, The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head.

Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation , the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.

A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley.

The patron saint of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.

There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since Especially since the s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration.

A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry.

According to the UK Census , there are roughly 53, people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 5] and 3, in Wales , [nb 5] including 11, Wiccans in England and in Wales.

The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.

Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school.

Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations.

Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. Further education colleges particularly sixth form colleges often form part of a secondary school site.

A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university.

Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools , to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.

Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England.

Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.

Since the establishment of Bedford College London , Girton College Cambridge and Somerville College Oxford in the 19th century , women also can obtain a university degree.

Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period; amongst the best known are Stonehenge , Devil's Arrows , Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg.

Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England. Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing.

Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno — Saxon monasticism , [] [] to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.

After the Norman conquest in various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion.

Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral , Westminster Abbey and York Minster.

Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically.

In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.

Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.

With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.

Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.

English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions.

Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith , [] others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.

During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth.

Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore.

Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.

The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate.

There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing , Maypole dancing , Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays , bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill.

Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.

The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant ' s best restaurant in the world charts.

Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , featuring a roasted joint usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.

Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest.

Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick — all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.

Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza , [] and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers , such as bitter , mild , stout and brown ale.

The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire , Northumberland and Cumbria , but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.

There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein , natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.

Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth , [] while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.

More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. The English played a significant role in romanticism: In response to the Industrial Revolution , agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett , G.

Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism , Arthur Penty , and cooperative movement advocate G.

Cole are somewhat related. Wells and Lewis Carroll. Lawrence , Virginia Woolf , C. Tolkien , and J. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music.

It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject [] and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks.

One of his four Coronation Anthems , Zadok the Priest , composed for the coronation of George II , has been performed at every subsequent British coronation , traditionally during the sovereign's anointing.

In the field of popular music , many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time.

Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury , V Festival , and the Reading and Leeds Festivals. Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers.

A Story of the London Fog , helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his film, Blackmail , is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.

Major film studios in England include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises Harry Potter and James Bond.

English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London's British Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects [] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, [] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.

England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world.

Sports originating in England include association football, [] cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash , [] rounders , [] hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting.

It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports.

The England national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in In the modern day, the Premier League is the world's most-watched football league, [] most lucrative, [] and amongst the elite.

As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants.

Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.

One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia , contested since The climax of the Ashes was viewed by 7.

However they have hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in , winning this format in beating rivals Australia in the final. William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games.

England competes in the Commonwealth Games , held every four years. Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England.

Rugby union originated in Rugby School , Warwickshire in the early 19th century. England was one of the host nations of the competition in the Rugby World Cup and also hosted the Rugby World Cup.

Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in Since , the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team , which won three World Cups but is now retired.

Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire , Yorkshire and Cumbria. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors , Hull F.

Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf. England has produced grand slam winners: The world's oldest golf tournament, and golf's first major is The Open Championship , played both in England and Scotland.

The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup , is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy. Tennis was created in Birmingham, England in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.

Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles [] and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins.

English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in and Virginia Wade in In boxing , under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules , England has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies.

Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing.

It is the most watched horse race in the UK, attracting casual observers, and three-time winner Red Rum is the most successful racehorse in the event's history.

England also has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing , the premier championship of motorcycle road racing , and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game.

Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships.

Another popular sport commonly associated with pub games is Snooker , and England has produced several world champions, including Steve Davis and Ronnie O'Sullivan.

The English are keen sailors and enjoy competitive sailing ; founding and winning some of the worlds most famous and respected international competitive tournaments across the various race formats, including the match race , a regatta, and the America's Cup.

The St George's Cross has been the national flag of England since the 13th century. Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa.

The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean.

A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George , along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner.

There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose , the nation's floral emblem , and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England.

The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace.

It is also known as the Rose of England. The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy.

England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: St George is the patron saint of England.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see England disambiguation.

Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction. England in the Middle Ages. East Riding of Yorkshire. Ceremonial counties of England. List of places in England.

List of English inventions and discoveries and Royal Society. English diaspora , Cornish people , and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom.

English language in England. English language , History of the English language , and Cornish language. Official, but not majority language.

History of Christianity in England. List of universities in England. Fish and chips is a very popular dish in England. Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages.

Chicken tikka masala , , adapted from Indian chicken tikka and called "a true British national dish. This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself.

This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. Folk music of England. Music of the United Kingdom. Thomas Tallis' "Lamentations I".

Cinema of the United Kingdom. List of museums in England. National symbols of England. England portal United Kingdom portal.

London's municipal population is also the largest in the EU. Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number. Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number.

Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 18 April Retrieved 9 August Retrieved 24 April Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 1 February Archived from the original on 9 February Department of Commerce has called the New England economy a microcosm for the entire U.

The region underwent a long period of deindustrialization in the first half of the 20th century, as traditional manufacturing companies relocated to the Midwest, with textile and furniture manufacturing migrating to the South.

In the lateth century, an increasing portion of the regional economy included high technology, military defense industry, finance and insurance services, and education and health services.

New England exports food products ranging from fish to lobster, cranberries, potatoes, and maple syrup. About half of the region's exports consist of industrial and commercial machinery, such as computers and electronic and electrical equipment.

In , Boston was ranked as having the ninth-most competitive financial center in the world and the fourth-most competitive in the United States.

State Street Corporation specializes in asset management and custody services and is based in the city. Boston is also a printing and publishing center.

Martin's and Beacon Press. The General Electric Corporation announced its decision to move the company's global headquarters to the Boston Seaport District from Fairfield, Connecticut in , citing factors including Boston's preeminence in the realm of higher education.

Rockport , Puma , and Wolverine World Wide have headquarters or regional offices [] just outside the city. It is also home to the corporate headquarters of U.

Fairfield County, Connecticut has a large concentration of investment management firms in the area, most notably Bridgewater Associates one of the world's largest hedge fund companies , Aladdin Capital Management, and Point72 Asset Management.

Agriculture is limited by the area's rocky soil, cool climate, and small area. Some New England states, however, are ranked highly among U.

Maine is ranked ninth for aquaculture , [] and has abundant potato fields in its northeast part. Vermont is fifteenth for dairy products, [] and Connecticut and Massachusetts seventh and eleventh for tobacco, respectively.

The region is mostly energy-efficient compared to the U. During the Great Recession , unemployment rates ballooned across New England as elsewhere; however, in the years that followed, these rates declined steadily, with New Hampshire and Massachusetts having the lowest unemployment rates in the country, respectively.

As of December , the metropolitan statistical area MSA with the lowest unemployment rate, 2. In , four of the six New England states were among the top ten states in the country in terms of taxes paid per taxpayer.

The rankings included 3 Maine New England town meetings were derived from meetings held by church elders, and are still an integral part of government in many New England towns.

At such meetings, any citizen of the town may discuss issues with other members of the community and vote on them. This is the strongest example of direct democracy in the U.

By contrast, James Madison wrote in Federalist No. Had every Athenian citizen been a Socrates, every Athenian assembly would still have been a mob.

State and national elected officials in New England recently have been elected mainly from the Democratic Party. In , four of six of the New England states were polled as the most liberal in the United States; Maine and New Hampshire also were more liberal than the bottom-half.

The six states of New England voted for the Democratic Presidential nominee in the , , , , , and elections, and every New England state other than New Hampshire voted for Al Gore in the presidential election of New England is home to the only two independents currently serving in the U.

Senate, both of whom caucus with the Democratic Party: Bernie Sanders , a self-described democratic socialist , [] [] representing Vermont ; and Angus King , an Independent representing Maine.

In the presidential election , Barack Obama carried all six New England states by 9 percentage points or more. Pursuant to the reapportionment following the census, New England collectively has 33 electoral votes.

The following table presents the vote percentage for the popular-vote winner for each New England state, New England as a whole, and the United States as a whole, in each presidential election from to , with the vote percentage for the Republican candidate shaded in red and the vote percentage for the Democratic candidate shaded in blue:.

Judging purely by party registration rather than voting patterns, New England today is one of the most Democratic regions in the U. This changed in the late 20th century, in large part due to demographic shifts [] and the Republican Party's adoption of socially conservative platforms as part of their strategic shift towards the South.

Maine and Vermont were the only two states in the nation to vote against Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt all four times he ran for president.

Republicans in New England are today considered by both liberals and conservatives to be more moderate socially liberal compared to Republicans in other parts of the U.

Historically, the New Hampshire primary has been the first in a series of nationwide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years.

Held in the state of New Hampshire , it usually marks the beginning of the U. Even though few delegates are chosen from New Hampshire, the primary has always been pivotal to both New England and American politics.

One college in particular, Saint Anselm College , has been home to numerous national presidential debates and visits by candidates to its campus.

New England contains some of the oldest and most renowned institutions of higher learning in the United States and the world. Harvard College was the first such institution, founded in at Cambridge, Massachusetts to train preachers.

Yale University was founded in Saybrook , Connecticut in , and awarded the nation's first doctoral PhD degree in Yale moved to New Haven, Connecticut in , where it has remained to the present day.

Brown University was the first college in the nation to accept students of all religious affiliations, and is the seventh oldest U.

It was founded in Providence, Rhode Island in Dartmouth College was founded five years later in Hanover, New Hampshire with the mission of educating the local American Indian population as well as English youth.

The University of Vermont , the fifth oldest university in New England, was founded in , the same year that Vermont joined the Union.

At the pre-college level, New England is home to a number of American independent schools also known as private schools.

The concept of the elite "New England prep school " preparatory school and the " preppy " lifestyle is an iconic part of the region's image.

New England is home to some of the oldest public schools in the nation. Boston Latin School is the oldest public school in America and was attended by several signatories of the Declaration of Independence.

As of , the National Education Association ranked Connecticut as having the highest-paid teachers in the country.

Massachusetts and Rhode Island ranked eighth and ninth, respectively. These states can compare the resultant scores with each other.

Some of its institutions lead the open access alternative to conventional academic publication, including MIT , the University of Connecticut , and the University of Maine.

New England has a shared heritage and culture primarily shaped by waves of immigration from Europe. Today, New England is the least religious region of the U.

In , less than half of those polled in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont claimed that religion was an important part of their daily lives.

Many of the first European colonists of New England had a maritime orientation toward whaling first noted about [] and fishing, in addition to farming.

New England has developed a distinct cuisine , dialect , architecture , and government. New England cuisine has a reputation for its emphasis on seafood and dairy; clam chowder , lobster, and other products of the sea are among some of the region's most popular foods.

New England has largely preserved its regional character, especially in its historic places. The enduring European influence can be seen in the region in the use of traffic rotaries , the bilingual French and English towns of northern Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire, the region's heavy prevalence of English town- and county-names, and its unique, often non- rhotic coastal dialect reminiscent of southeastern England.

Within New England, many names of towns and a few counties repeat from state to state, primarily due to settlers throughout the region having named their new towns after their old ones.

For example, the town of North Yarmouth, Maine was named by settlers from Yarmouth, Massachusetts , which was in turn named for Great Yarmouth in England.

There are several American English accents spoken in the region normally north of Connecticut , including New England English and its derivative known as the Boston accent , [] which is native to the northeastern coastal regions of New England.

The most identifiable features of the Boston accent are believed [ by whom? Another source was 17th century speech in East Anglia and Lincolnshire where many of the Puritan immigrants originated.

The Boston accent and those accents closely related to it cover eastern Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine.

Some Rhode Islanders speak with a non-rhotic accent that many compare to a " Brooklyn " accent or a cross between a New York and Boston accent, where "water" becomes "wata".

Contra dancing and country square dancing are popular throughout New England, usually backed by live Irish, Acadian, or other folk music.

Fife and drum corps are common, especially in southern New England and more specifically Connecticut , with music of mostly Celtic, English, and local origin.

Traditional knitting , quilting , and rug hooking circles in rural New England have become less common; church , sports, and town government are more typical social activities.

These traditional gatherings are often hosted in individual homes or civic centers. New England leads the U. New England was an important center of American classical music for some time.

Prominent modernist composers also come from the region, including Charles Ives and John Adams.

Quincy, Massachusetts native Dick Dale helped popularize surf rock. New England Cable News is the largest regional hour cable news network in the U.

New Englanders are well represented in American comedy. Writers for The Simpsons and late-night television programs often come by way of the Harvard Lampoon.

SNL cast member Seth Meyers once attributed the region's imprint on American humor to its "sort of wry New England sense of pointing out anyone who's trying to make a big deal of himself", with the Boston Globe suggesting that irony and sarcasm are its trademarks, as well as Irish influences.

The literature of New England has had an enduring influence on American literature in general, with themes that are emblematic of the larger concerns of American letters, such as religion, race, the individual versus society, social repression, and nature.

Boston was the center of the American publishing industry for some years, largely on the strength of its local writers and before it was overtaken by New York in the middle of the nineteenth century.

Boston remains the home of publishers Houghton Mifflin and Pearson Education , and it was the longtime home of literary magazine The Atlantic Monthly.

Merriam-Webster is based in Springfield, Massachusetts. Higgins wrote about life in the New England criminal underworld, while H.

Lovecraft set many of his works of horror in his native Rhode Island. New England has a rich history in filmmaking dating back to the dawn of the motion picture era at the turn of the 20th century, sometimes dubbed Hollywood East by film critics.

A theater at Washington Street in Boston was the second location to debut a picture projected by the Vitascope , and shortly thereafter several novels were being adapted for the screen and set in New England, including The Scarlet Letter and The House of Seven Gables.

The New England area became known for a number of themes that recurred in films made during this era, including the development of yankee characters, smalltown life contrasted with city values, seafaring tales, family secrets, and haunted New England.

Since the turn of the millennium, Boston and the greater New England region have been home to the production of numerous films and television series, thanks in part to tax incentive programs put in place by local governments to attract filmmakers to the region.

A full list of those from Massachusetts can be found here , and a listing of notable films and television series produced in the area here.

Two popular American sports were invented in New England: Morgan , in Holyoke, Massachusetts. The major professional sports teams in New England are based in Massachusetts: Hartford had professional hockey team the Hartford Whalers from until they moved to North Carolina in New England is also home to the Worcester Blades , Boston Pride , and the Connecticut Whale which represent three of the five professional women's hockey teams in the United States.

The Springfield Armor in Springfield, Massachusetts previously played in the region. Thanksgiving Day high school football rivalries date back to the 19th century, and the Harvard-Yale rivalry " The Game " is the oldest rivalry in college football.

The Boston Marathon is run on Patriots' Day every year; it is a New England cultural institution and the oldest annual marathon in the world.

The race offers far less prize money than many other marathons, but its difficulty and long history make it one of the world's most prestigious marathons.

Amtrak provides interstate rail service throughout New England. Boston is the northern terminus of the Northeast Corridor. The long-distance Lake Shore Limited train has two eastern termini after splitting in Albany , one of which is Boston.

This provides rail service on the former Boston and Albany Railroad , which runs between its namesake cities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the region in North America. For other uses, see New England disambiguation. History of New England.

Geology of New England. Climate of New England. Demographics of New England. List of cities by population in New England. Economy of New England. Town meeting and New England town.

Politics of New England. Elections in New England. List of colleges and universities in Connecticut , List of colleges and universities in Maine , List of colleges and universities in Massachusetts , List of colleges and universities in New Hampshire , List of colleges and universities in Rhode Island , and List of colleges and universities in Vermont.

Cuisine of New England. Literature of New England. Sports in New England. Transportation in New England. New England portal United States portal.

Retrieved May 29, The American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved March 28, Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved December 14, Retrieved October 16, Retrieved August 17, Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia Archived from the original on November 1, Retrieved October 10, Archived copy as title link CS1 maint: Retrieved April 21, Asian Americans in New England: University of New Hampshire Press.

Retrieved October 12, Native Peoples in New England. The History of Norridgewock. An Autohistory of the Abenaki Nation".

Archived from the original on September 28, Retrieved August 11, Signers of the Mayflower Compact, vol.

The Mail and Express Publishing Company. Retrieved March 29, How and Why It Was Made. Archived from the original on April 29, The Rhode Island Historical Society.

Rhode Island Tourism Division. The History of Vermont: The Oxford History of the American People. Archived from the original on April 1, Retrieved July 25, Historical Flags of Our Ancestors.

Proceedings of the First New England Conference: History of the Flag of the United States of America: Retrieved March 30, History of New England, vol.

Little, Brown, and Company. A Compendious History of New England, vol. The Random House Dictionary. Retrieved September 5, Primary Documents of American History".

History of the Hartford Convention. The War of University of Illinois Press. A History of American Literature. Archived from the original on October 13, Retrieved November 22, Birthplace of the American Industrial Revolution".

Retrieved April 4, The Textile Industries of the United States: The Riverside Press, The Heartbeat of the 19th Century Industrial Revolution".

Connecticut River Valley Overview". Teaching the Industrial Revolution. The Flow of History. Archived from the original on March 5, Transforming Women's Work pp.

University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on April 24, Religion in American History. National Humanities Center TeacherServe.

Elections A to Z. Retrieved April 19, Journal of American Studies. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 7, The Geography of New England.

Retrieved December 23, Archived from the original on July 22, Retrieved May 27, Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved May 28, Archived from the original on August 16, Rhode Island Department of Labor and Training.

Retrieved December 15, Final Data for " PDF. National Vital Statistics Reports. New England Division B ".

New England Division S ". April 1, to July 1, ". Archived from the original on May 22, Combined Statistical Areas checkbox.

In der Beste Spielothek in Möderhof finden Renaissance wurden viele Wörter aus dem Französischen und Lateinischen übernommen. Sie erledigen süperlig türkei die Verwaltungseinheiten der Grafschaften mit und sind somit den Metropolitan Districts vergleichbar. Kennzeichnend für das Spätmittelalter ist der Hundertjährige Krieg. Die Dichte von Personen pro Quadratkilometer ist ebenfalls sehr hoch. England hat — im Gegensatz zu Schottland, Wales oder Nordirland — weder ein Landesparlament noch eine Landesregierung. Nur zuletzt gegen Manchester United durfte er erstmals von Beginn an ran, machte gleich ein Tor zum 2:

bild england -

Einwohner in Greater London auf nur 1,3 Prozent der Gesamtfläche leben. Die beiden haben darin auch schon ziemlich viel Übung, traten sie doch bei ihrem Onkel Harry und ihrer Tante Pippa auch schon in dieser Rolle auf. Die Landbevölkerung stellte bei weitem die Mehrheit. Diese Entwicklung hatte eine Reihe wirtschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Folgen: Einen wird es wohl erwischen Nach schwachen Auftritten vom Dienstag wird es jetzt richtig eng. Giftfall in England Wurde dieses Paar nur zufällig zu Opfern? Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg wurden die britischen Kolonien nach und nach selbständig.

England Bild Video

Historisch! England-Sieg im Elfmeter-Drama – WM-Roundup

Several factors combine to make the New England economy unique. The region is distant from the geographic center of the country, and it is a relatively small region but densely populated.

It historically has been an important center of industry and manufacturing and a supplier of natural resource products, such as granite, lobster, and codfish.

The service industry is important, including tourism, education, financial and insurance services, and architectural, building, and construction services.

Department of Commerce has called the New England economy a microcosm for the entire U. The region underwent a long period of deindustrialization in the first half of the 20th century, as traditional manufacturing companies relocated to the Midwest, with textile and furniture manufacturing migrating to the South.

In the lateth century, an increasing portion of the regional economy included high technology, military defense industry, finance and insurance services, and education and health services.

New England exports food products ranging from fish to lobster, cranberries, potatoes, and maple syrup. About half of the region's exports consist of industrial and commercial machinery, such as computers and electronic and electrical equipment.

In , Boston was ranked as having the ninth-most competitive financial center in the world and the fourth-most competitive in the United States.

State Street Corporation specializes in asset management and custody services and is based in the city. Boston is also a printing and publishing center.

Martin's and Beacon Press. The General Electric Corporation announced its decision to move the company's global headquarters to the Boston Seaport District from Fairfield, Connecticut in , citing factors including Boston's preeminence in the realm of higher education.

Rockport , Puma , and Wolverine World Wide have headquarters or regional offices [] just outside the city.

It is also home to the corporate headquarters of U. Fairfield County, Connecticut has a large concentration of investment management firms in the area, most notably Bridgewater Associates one of the world's largest hedge fund companies , Aladdin Capital Management, and Point72 Asset Management.

Agriculture is limited by the area's rocky soil, cool climate, and small area. Some New England states, however, are ranked highly among U.

Maine is ranked ninth for aquaculture , [] and has abundant potato fields in its northeast part. Vermont is fifteenth for dairy products, [] and Connecticut and Massachusetts seventh and eleventh for tobacco, respectively.

The region is mostly energy-efficient compared to the U. During the Great Recession , unemployment rates ballooned across New England as elsewhere; however, in the years that followed, these rates declined steadily, with New Hampshire and Massachusetts having the lowest unemployment rates in the country, respectively.

As of December , the metropolitan statistical area MSA with the lowest unemployment rate, 2. In , four of the six New England states were among the top ten states in the country in terms of taxes paid per taxpayer.

The rankings included 3 Maine New England town meetings were derived from meetings held by church elders, and are still an integral part of government in many New England towns.

At such meetings, any citizen of the town may discuss issues with other members of the community and vote on them. This is the strongest example of direct democracy in the U.

By contrast, James Madison wrote in Federalist No. Had every Athenian citizen been a Socrates, every Athenian assembly would still have been a mob.

State and national elected officials in New England recently have been elected mainly from the Democratic Party.

In , four of six of the New England states were polled as the most liberal in the United States; Maine and New Hampshire also were more liberal than the bottom-half.

The six states of New England voted for the Democratic Presidential nominee in the , , , , , and elections, and every New England state other than New Hampshire voted for Al Gore in the presidential election of New England is home to the only two independents currently serving in the U.

Senate, both of whom caucus with the Democratic Party: Bernie Sanders , a self-described democratic socialist , [] [] representing Vermont ; and Angus King , an Independent representing Maine.

In the presidential election , Barack Obama carried all six New England states by 9 percentage points or more. Pursuant to the reapportionment following the census, New England collectively has 33 electoral votes.

The following table presents the vote percentage for the popular-vote winner for each New England state, New England as a whole, and the United States as a whole, in each presidential election from to , with the vote percentage for the Republican candidate shaded in red and the vote percentage for the Democratic candidate shaded in blue:.

Judging purely by party registration rather than voting patterns, New England today is one of the most Democratic regions in the U. This changed in the late 20th century, in large part due to demographic shifts [] and the Republican Party's adoption of socially conservative platforms as part of their strategic shift towards the South.

Maine and Vermont were the only two states in the nation to vote against Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt all four times he ran for president. Republicans in New England are today considered by both liberals and conservatives to be more moderate socially liberal compared to Republicans in other parts of the U.

Historically, the New Hampshire primary has been the first in a series of nationwide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years.

Held in the state of New Hampshire , it usually marks the beginning of the U. Even though few delegates are chosen from New Hampshire, the primary has always been pivotal to both New England and American politics.

One college in particular, Saint Anselm College , has been home to numerous national presidential debates and visits by candidates to its campus. New England contains some of the oldest and most renowned institutions of higher learning in the United States and the world.

Harvard College was the first such institution, founded in at Cambridge, Massachusetts to train preachers. Yale University was founded in Saybrook , Connecticut in , and awarded the nation's first doctoral PhD degree in Yale moved to New Haven, Connecticut in , where it has remained to the present day.

Brown University was the first college in the nation to accept students of all religious affiliations, and is the seventh oldest U.

It was founded in Providence, Rhode Island in Dartmouth College was founded five years later in Hanover, New Hampshire with the mission of educating the local American Indian population as well as English youth.

The University of Vermont , the fifth oldest university in New England, was founded in , the same year that Vermont joined the Union.

At the pre-college level, New England is home to a number of American independent schools also known as private schools.

The concept of the elite "New England prep school " preparatory school and the " preppy " lifestyle is an iconic part of the region's image.

New England is home to some of the oldest public schools in the nation. Boston Latin School is the oldest public school in America and was attended by several signatories of the Declaration of Independence.

As of , the National Education Association ranked Connecticut as having the highest-paid teachers in the country. Massachusetts and Rhode Island ranked eighth and ninth, respectively.

These states can compare the resultant scores with each other. Some of its institutions lead the open access alternative to conventional academic publication, including MIT , the University of Connecticut , and the University of Maine.

New England has a shared heritage and culture primarily shaped by waves of immigration from Europe. Today, New England is the least religious region of the U.

In , less than half of those polled in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont claimed that religion was an important part of their daily lives.

Many of the first European colonists of New England had a maritime orientation toward whaling first noted about [] and fishing, in addition to farming.

New England has developed a distinct cuisine , dialect , architecture , and government. New England cuisine has a reputation for its emphasis on seafood and dairy; clam chowder , lobster, and other products of the sea are among some of the region's most popular foods.

New England has largely preserved its regional character, especially in its historic places. The enduring European influence can be seen in the region in the use of traffic rotaries , the bilingual French and English towns of northern Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire, the region's heavy prevalence of English town- and county-names, and its unique, often non- rhotic coastal dialect reminiscent of southeastern England.

Within New England, many names of towns and a few counties repeat from state to state, primarily due to settlers throughout the region having named their new towns after their old ones.

For example, the town of North Yarmouth, Maine was named by settlers from Yarmouth, Massachusetts , which was in turn named for Great Yarmouth in England.

There are several American English accents spoken in the region normally north of Connecticut , including New England English and its derivative known as the Boston accent , [] which is native to the northeastern coastal regions of New England.

The most identifiable features of the Boston accent are believed [ by whom? Another source was 17th century speech in East Anglia and Lincolnshire where many of the Puritan immigrants originated.

The Boston accent and those accents closely related to it cover eastern Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine. Some Rhode Islanders speak with a non-rhotic accent that many compare to a " Brooklyn " accent or a cross between a New York and Boston accent, where "water" becomes "wata".

Contra dancing and country square dancing are popular throughout New England, usually backed by live Irish, Acadian, or other folk music.

Fife and drum corps are common, especially in southern New England and more specifically Connecticut , with music of mostly Celtic, English, and local origin.

Traditional knitting , quilting , and rug hooking circles in rural New England have become less common; church , sports, and town government are more typical social activities.

These traditional gatherings are often hosted in individual homes or civic centers. New England leads the U.

New England was an important center of American classical music for some time. Prominent modernist composers also come from the region, including Charles Ives and John Adams.

Quincy, Massachusetts native Dick Dale helped popularize surf rock. New England Cable News is the largest regional hour cable news network in the U.

New Englanders are well represented in American comedy. Writers for The Simpsons and late-night television programs often come by way of the Harvard Lampoon.

SNL cast member Seth Meyers once attributed the region's imprint on American humor to its "sort of wry New England sense of pointing out anyone who's trying to make a big deal of himself", with the Boston Globe suggesting that irony and sarcasm are its trademarks, as well as Irish influences.

The literature of New England has had an enduring influence on American literature in general, with themes that are emblematic of the larger concerns of American letters, such as religion, race, the individual versus society, social repression, and nature.

Boston was the center of the American publishing industry for some years, largely on the strength of its local writers and before it was overtaken by New York in the middle of the nineteenth century.

Boston remains the home of publishers Houghton Mifflin and Pearson Education , and it was the longtime home of literary magazine The Atlantic Monthly.

Merriam-Webster is based in Springfield, Massachusetts. Higgins wrote about life in the New England criminal underworld, while H. Lovecraft set many of his works of horror in his native Rhode Island.

New England has a rich history in filmmaking dating back to the dawn of the motion picture era at the turn of the 20th century, sometimes dubbed Hollywood East by film critics.

A theater at Washington Street in Boston was the second location to debut a picture projected by the Vitascope , and shortly thereafter several novels were being adapted for the screen and set in New England, including The Scarlet Letter and The House of Seven Gables.

The New England area became known for a number of themes that recurred in films made during this era, including the development of yankee characters, smalltown life contrasted with city values, seafaring tales, family secrets, and haunted New England.

Since the turn of the millennium, Boston and the greater New England region have been home to the production of numerous films and television series, thanks in part to tax incentive programs put in place by local governments to attract filmmakers to the region.

A full list of those from Massachusetts can be found here , and a listing of notable films and television series produced in the area here.

Two popular American sports were invented in New England: Morgan , in Holyoke, Massachusetts. The major professional sports teams in New England are based in Massachusetts: Hartford had professional hockey team the Hartford Whalers from until they moved to North Carolina in New England is also home to the Worcester Blades , Boston Pride , and the Connecticut Whale which represent three of the five professional women's hockey teams in the United States.

The Springfield Armor in Springfield, Massachusetts previously played in the region. Thanksgiving Day high school football rivalries date back to the 19th century, and the Harvard-Yale rivalry " The Game " is the oldest rivalry in college football.

The Boston Marathon is run on Patriots' Day every year; it is a New England cultural institution and the oldest annual marathon in the world.

The race offers far less prize money than many other marathons, but its difficulty and long history make it one of the world's most prestigious marathons.

Amtrak provides interstate rail service throughout New England. Boston is the northern terminus of the Northeast Corridor.

The long-distance Lake Shore Limited train has two eastern termini after splitting in Albany , one of which is Boston. This provides rail service on the former Boston and Albany Railroad , which runs between its namesake cities.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the region in North America. For other uses, see New England disambiguation.

History of New England. Geology of New England. Climate of New England. Demographics of New England.

List of cities by population in New England. Economy of New England. Town meeting and New England town.

Politics of New England. Elections in New England. List of colleges and universities in Connecticut , List of colleges and universities in Maine , List of colleges and universities in Massachusetts , List of colleges and universities in New Hampshire , List of colleges and universities in Rhode Island , and List of colleges and universities in Vermont.

Cuisine of New England. Literature of New England. Sports in New England. Transportation in New England.

New England portal United States portal. Retrieved May 29, The American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved March 28, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Retrieved December 14, Retrieved October 16, Retrieved August 17, Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia Archived from the original on November 1, Retrieved October 10, Archived copy as title link CS1 maint: Retrieved April 21, Asian Americans in New England: University of New Hampshire Press.

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Retrieved December 15, Final Data for " PDF. National Vital Statistics Reports. New England Division B ". With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched.

In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace. Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.

English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions.

Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith , [] others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.

During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth.

Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore. Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.

The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing , Maypole dancing , Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays , bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill.

Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.

The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant ' s best restaurant in the world charts.

Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , featuring a roasted joint usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.

Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest. Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti.

Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick — all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.

Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza , [] and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers , such as bitter , mild , stout and brown ale.

The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire , Northumberland and Cumbria , but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.

There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein , natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.

Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth , [] while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.

More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism.

The English played a significant role in romanticism: In response to the Industrial Revolution , agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett , G.

Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism , Arthur Penty , and cooperative movement advocate G.

Cole are somewhat related. Wells and Lewis Carroll. Lawrence , Virginia Woolf , C. Tolkien , and J. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music.

It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject [] and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks.

One of his four Coronation Anthems , Zadok the Priest , composed for the coronation of George II , has been performed at every subsequent British coronation , traditionally during the sovereign's anointing.

In the field of popular music , many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time.

Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury , V Festival , and the Reading and Leeds Festivals.

Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers. A Story of the London Fog , helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his film, Blackmail , is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.

Major film studios in England include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises Harry Potter and James Bond.

English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London's British Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects [] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, [] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.

England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world.

Sports originating in England include association football, [] cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash , [] rounders , [] hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting.

It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in In the modern day, the Premier League is the world's most-watched football league, [] most lucrative, [] and amongst the elite.

As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants.

Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald. One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia , contested since The climax of the Ashes was viewed by 7.

However they have hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in , winning this format in beating rivals Australia in the final. William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games.

England competes in the Commonwealth Games , held every four years. Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England.

Rugby union originated in Rugby School , Warwickshire in the early 19th century. England was one of the host nations of the competition in the Rugby World Cup and also hosted the Rugby World Cup.

Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in Since , the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team , which won three World Cups but is now retired.

Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire , Yorkshire and Cumbria. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors , Hull F.

Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf. England has produced grand slam winners: The world's oldest golf tournament, and golf's first major is The Open Championship , played both in England and Scotland.

The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup , is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy.

Tennis was created in Birmingham, England in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.

Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles [] and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins.

English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in and Virginia Wade in In boxing , under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules , England has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies.

Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. It is the most watched horse race in the UK, attracting casual observers, and three-time winner Red Rum is the most successful racehorse in the event's history.

England also has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing , the premier championship of motorcycle road racing , and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game.

Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships.

Another popular sport commonly associated with pub games is Snooker , and England has produced several world champions, including Steve Davis and Ronnie O'Sullivan.

The English are keen sailors and enjoy competitive sailing ; founding and winning some of the worlds most famous and respected international competitive tournaments across the various race formats, including the match race , a regatta, and the America's Cup.

The St George's Cross has been the national flag of England since the 13th century. Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa.

The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean.

A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George , along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner.

There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose , the nation's floral emblem , and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England.

The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace.

It is also known as the Rose of England. The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy.

England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: St George is the patron saint of England.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see England disambiguation.

Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction. England in the Middle Ages. East Riding of Yorkshire. Ceremonial counties of England.

List of places in England. List of English inventions and discoveries and Royal Society. English diaspora , Cornish people , and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom.

English language in England. English language , History of the English language , and Cornish language. Official, but not majority language.

History of Christianity in England. List of universities in England. Fish and chips is a very popular dish in England.

Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages. Chicken tikka masala , , adapted from Indian chicken tikka and called "a true British national dish.

This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself.

This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. Folk music of England. Music of the United Kingdom. Thomas Tallis' "Lamentations I".

Cinema of the United Kingdom. List of museums in England. National symbols of England. England portal United Kingdom portal.

London's municipal population is also the largest in the EU. Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number.

Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number. Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament.

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The New England Colonies were play worms online primarily by farmers who became relatively self-sufficient. Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number. In the census, By the s, immigrants began working in the mills, especially Irish and French Canadians. Regions of the United States. Archived from the original on 17 January Problems playing these files? After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations. Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples bitfinex euro einzahlen the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral tipico.comde, Westminster Abbey and York Minster. Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing. Combined Statistical Areas checkbox.

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